The real-world test was performed by Rad Power Bikes, the leading North American manufacturer of electric bicycles. It sought to determine how many calories were burned when riding e-bikes using pedal assist.
The nice thing about this test is that it allows us to find the rider closest to ourselves and get an idea of our own potential exercise level on such e-bikes. For example, Rider 5 on the cargo e-bike matches most closely with my build, and so I know that I can still get in a decent workout even with max assist on that e-bike.
All of this aligns with what several more scientifically rigorous studies have determined: that electric bicycles can provide nearly as much exercise as pedal bikes. In some cases, e-bikes actually provide more net exercise as they cause riders to ride further and for longer durations.